Державний вищий навчальний заклад

Дата конвертації29.03.2019
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Kozachuk Artem

2nd year student

Foreign Philology Department

Scientific Supervisor: Associate Professor Zapolskykh S.P.

Most words have more than one meaning, it is the characteristic of words that a single word may have several meaning. As we experience, words are human situations, they not only take on certain denotation, but also often acquire individual flavors (connotations). A great number of studies deal with the issues of connotations, ways and techniques of their translation, though they lack consistency and leave much for further research.

According to Leech connotative meaning is the communicative value an expression has by virtue of what it refers to, over and above its purely conceptual content. It will be clear if we are talking about connotation, we are in fact talking about the “real word experience”. Connotative meaning is associated with an expression when someone uses and hears it. The fact that if we compared connotative meaning with denotative meaning is that connotations are relatively unstable; that is they vary considerably according to culture, historical period, and the experience of the individual [Leech, 1983:12-13]. They have come to have emotive tone, the associations, and suggestiveness of the situation in which they have been a part.

For Nida, the success of the translation depends above all on achieving equivalent effect or response. The message has to be tailored to the receptor’s linguistic needs and cultural expectation «aims at complete naturalness of expression» [Munday. 2011: 67]. So, to transfer the emotional component of the utterance as much accurate as possible is an essential part of equivalence. But it is not necessary to use the same stylistic means in the TL as it was used in the SL. It appears more important to achieve the same stylistically-expressive effect in order to get the same responses from the receivers.

Compare: It’s time to kick Germany out of the Eurozone [4]. – Пора изгнать Германию из еврозоны [5] .to kick sb out (of sth)(infml) to dismiss sb or send them away. As we see English phrasal verbs has stylistically labeled as colloquial but its Russian equivalent выгнатьin Russian has no stylistically markedness and in order to achieve the same stylistically-expressive effect the translator use Russian verbs with bookish label.

Consequently, the objective is to show that besides denotative meaning words can have additional – connotative and what means a translator can employ in order to preserve words connotations while translating from one language into another. For example let us examine the word «to pummel» if we look up we see that besides the seme to hit it has additional connotation such as to hit sb/sth repeatedly, esp with the fists. The following example show us that the translator did no analyze the full range of this word and as a result in the TL the utterance has lost its stylistic markedness: The overall aim, said UK defence sources, was to “improve the survivability” of Ukrainian troops who have been pummelled by heavy artillery [6]. – Общая цель, говорят источники из британского военного ведомства, состоит в «повышении живучести» украинских войск, которые подвергаются обстрелам из тяжелой артиллерии [7]. Having analyzed the word pummel and its connotations we can suggest an alternative translation: в «повышении живучести» украинских войск, которые постоянно подвергаться безжалостным обстрелам из тяжелой артиллерии. Or as it often happens the words of English newspapers are labeled stylistically.

Summing up, we have arrived at conclusion when translating from language A into language B or via versa the translator has no choice but take into consideration these shades of word’s meaning and its stylistically markedness. And we saw that the translator does not have always to use the same stylistic means in the TL but the translator has to tailor the message to get the same responses from the receivers.


  1. Hornby A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English,5th ed. /A.S.Hornby. – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. – 2056 p.

  2. Leech G. Semantics: The Study of Meaning /G.Leech. – Harmondsworht: Penguin, 1983.–276 p.

  3. Munday J. Introducing Translation Studies. Theories and Applications, / J.Munday. - London, New York: Roultedge, 2011. – 311p.

  4. It’s Time to Kick Germany out of Eurozone // Foreign Policy 2015 [Електронний ресурс].– Режим доступу: https://foreignpolicy.com/2015/02/20/its-time-to-kick-germany-out-of-the-eurozone/

  5. Пора изгнать Германию из еврозоны [Електронний ресурс].– Режим доступу: http://inosmi.ru/world/20150223/226417935.html

  6. UK Military Training in Ukraine // The Guardian 2015 [Електронний ресурс].– Режим доступу: http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2015/feb/24/uk-military-training-in-ukraine-symbolic-move-that-risks-russian-ire

  7. Великобритания проведет военную подготовку украинских солдат [Електронний ресурс].– Режим доступу: http://inosmi.ru/sngbaltia/20150225/226466006.html

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